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Chapter 8 Chapter 5 Tibet

Everest Epic 佛蘭西斯.楊赫斯本 6554Words 2023-02-05
Now, the expedition's vacation is over and business is about to begin.None of the members of the expedition arrived in Tibet in good shape, and now they have to deal with the hard work that lies ahead.Since leaving England, they have been experiencing contrasting climates, heat and cold, dry heat and steaming heat, dry cold and wet cold, and a change in diet, perhaps combined with poor and unclean cooking, has hit them almost one by one. fall down.Things were worst with Kailas; he was bedridden as soon as he arrived in Parry. However, now that they are in Tibet, at least the weather is healthy.The drenching mist, the downpour, and the sapping heat were all left behind.Seasonal winds and clouds that turn up huge waves cannot reach Tibet.The sky was clear and the air was dry, sometimes too clear and too dry.

Parry is a dirty and ugly place, a comment that has been made by every traveler since Manning's trip in 1811, and no one has disputed it.It is a fortification on a plain surrounded by small towns.But the head office of the local officials was very polite and helpful.Tibetans are polite and attentive by nature.Although they can be stubborn at times, and even gnash their teeth with hatred if they offend their religion, their natural temperament is polite and polite.Before the expedition arrived here, the general office had already received an order from Lhasa: to prepare the necessary means of transportation and pay for it by the British side and treat them kindly.

Note ①Manning: Refers to Thomas Manning, a British, who won the gratitude of a Chinese general for providing medical services, so he joined the general's entourage and arrived in Lhasa in 1811. Stayed for four months.Editor's note At this moment, the means of transportation had been settled, but it still needed some time to make arrangements, so the expedition team stayed in Parry for a few days. From this filthy place, they trekked to Tuna via Tang La, which is 15,200 feet high.The defile is a gentle strip two or three miles wide, with an almost imperceptible ascent, and for this reason it is of extraordinary importance.It constitutes the main route from India to Tibet; the mission to Tibet in 1904 reached Lhasa via this route.They made it through even in the depths of winter on January 9th, except that the temperature dropped below minus eighteen degrees Fahrenheit at night and the wind was strong during the day.There is little descent on the other side of the pass, and Tuna, where the mission to Tibet stops in January, February and March, is at an altitude of 15,000 feet.

Note ②After the 18th century, the British used colonial India as a base to try to extend their influence to the southwestern region of China, and repeatedly demanded trade with Tibet.In 1888, there was an armed conflict between Britain and Tibet, and the relationship between them deteriorated. Finally, in 1904, the author of this book, Yang Hussein, led an armed envoy to invade Tibet under the order of Duke Curzon, the governor of India. Mountain battles.After the fall of Gyantse, the British army invaded Lhasa, and the Dalai Lama XIII fled to Mongolia. The Panchen Lama was forced to sign the Lhasa Treaty with the British, opening up the mysterious and imprisoned Shangri-La. The relationship with the vassal became the relationship between the sovereign government and the locality, which was the prelude to China's sending troops into Tibet, and indirectly caused the situation where Tibetans established a government-in-exile in Dharamsala (Dharamsala) in northern India today.Editor's note

Now the expedition has reached the highland territory of Tibet.A few hundred miles to the east is China, and to the north is Central Turkestan.This territory consists of a vast, open plain, between 14,000 and 15,000 feet in height, bounded on all sides by a barren arc of mountains, thousands of feet above the plain, and sawn near their peaks. Once the height of the peak reaches more than 20,000 feet, the mountain will wear a white cap made of ice and snow.This is the general geographical feature of Tibet.In some ways, it's bleak, bare, and uninviting.The wind that blows withered and rotten makes people's body and soul tremble.But Tibet has at least one good thing: mornings are usually quiet.At that moment, the sky was a transparent, pure blue; the sun was warm and warm.The snow-capped peaks in the distance are painted in subtle shades of pink and yellowish.Even people's hearts are warmed up.

Note ③ Turkestan is the name used by some foreigners for the vast Central Asian region east of the Caspian Sea.Chinese Turkestan refers to the Xinjiang area.Editor's note The reason why Tibet is a plateau as mentioned above is the lack of rain.In the Himalayas on the Indian side, the rain falls like a torrent, but on the Tibetan side, there is almost no rain or dew.Therefore, the plateau on this side of Tibet has never been cut out of high and deep valleys like that on the other side of India.A lack of rain means a lack of vegetation, and a lack of vegetation means a scarcity of animals.Because there is no grass and trees on the surface, the bare rocks and soil are hot in the sun, and then cool down quickly after nightfall, so Tibet has become a country with strong winds.

Blue skies, uninterrupted sunshine, severe winds, extreme temperature changes, severe cold, and bare landscapes are the characteristics of Tibet; and being in this high latitude gives a European a feeling that he always feels that only half of himself exists. Under these conditions, it is no wonder that the vegetation there hardly makes its presence felt.As far as you can see, the whole plain looks like a desert.You can't imagine how life survives there, but you see herds of sheep and yaks.When you look more closely, you do see some kind of low bush that has a leaf here and another that even has flowers in summer: a little trumpet-shaped purple hornwort, and the dwarf blue iris is quite common.In winter, the animals shuffled around the ground, relying on the remaining roots of the plants to survive.The sheep are as thin as skin and bones, and a leg of lamb is only enough to accompany a meal in winter.They survived, however, through the cold, the wind, and the famine, until the moment came when the short summer grass grew rapidly.

Besides domestic animals, there are more wild animals here than one would guess.Among the most common animals is the pika, or pika, a delightful little creature about the size of a guinea pig, quick and animated, darting from hole to hole with the swiftness of a dart.They live in less rocky areas or small meadows on plateaus, where they dig holes to store seeds in summer and hibernate in them in winter.The Tibetan rabbit lives in the rocky debris that accumulates at the foot of the mountain; the mountain is home to ibex, blue goat (burrhel) and Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni).On this open plateau, elegant little gazers are common, and occasionally small herds of wild donkeys, or kiangs, can be seen.There are also wolves and foxes there, but not many.I don't know whether it is to protect themselves from other birds and beasts, or for other reasons, the animals here are generally khaki or coffee, the same color as the plateau soil.

This protective coloring is more pronounced in flocks of birds.Skylark, fringe and warbler are the most common birds here.The Tibetan skylark is almost identical to our English species, and their song is heard over almost every cultivated field.Hingston, the naturalist of the third echelon expedition, saw five species of warblers.They are all well protected by a feather color that is neither bright nor pronounced brown or russet.The sandgrouse, whose feathers and open ground are also buff, inhabits the vast stony plateaus and lives in groups of considerable numbers.Partridges can be seen on the slopes of the mountains, while Alpine red woodpeckers, rock pigeons and rock swallows can be found in the gorges.There are sparrows and robins in and around the village.Wollaston also saw a cuckoo on a pole.

The enemies of these birds and animals are chiefly wolves and foxes on the ground, and eagles, vultures and kestrels in the air.It is against these enemies that the protective colors of birds and animals are designed.Members of the expedition have seen giant bearded vultures hovering in the air, scouting out potential targets. But among these enemies, man cannot be counted.Although Tibetans cannot say that they never kill animals, because meat is eaten in Tibet, they are against killing animals in principle, and they do not hunt and kill wild animals.In fact, around some monasteries, wild animals were fed so tame that wild sheep approached the expedition's camp.This respect for wild animals comes from the Buddhism that Tibetans believe in.But in this regard, other ethnic groups who believe in Buddhism are not as special as Tibetans.The reason why Tibetans have such a strict commandment may come from their sense of companionship cultivated by struggling with animals to survive in unfavorable living conditions.When we all fight against the freezing cold and disturbing winds, and take the life of an animal, we must be condemned by conscience.

It hardly rains, and the plateau is bare and dry. Tibet's climate has always been described as such.However, Tibet also attracts attention because of its lakes; its lakes are very beautiful.The main feature of these lakes is their blue color perhaps reflecting the brilliant blue sky of Tibet.In Howard.At the place where Belly's expedition team left Lhasa and marched westward to Mount Everest, there is a lake called Ban Tso; it is one of the loveliest lakes in Tibet; it has a special beauty, and the reaction on the lake is Surrounded by snow-covered mountains, the most outstanding and eye-catching one is the peak of the famous mountain Chomolari Peak. In summer, these lakes and swamps are home to countless wild birds.Striped-headed geese and redshanks nest here.Puckers (also known as rufous ducks; such ducks are often seen when passing the lakes in St. James's Park, London) and coots have been seen swimming in these pools.Sand martins, brown-headed gulls, and common terns were thrown over their heads. Note ④ St. James's Park St. James's park: Located in the southeast of Buckingham Palace in London, with an area of ​​about 36 hectares, it is the oldest and most beautifully decorated royal park in central London. It is such country through which expeditions now march; first they will go to Khamba Dzong, then to Sheka and Tingri, and they will occasionally pass through villages, because even at altitude At 15,000 feet there is also barley and even wheat,5 only because the sun is so warm during the short summer.But most of them traveled over dry high plains separated from each other by mountains.The mountains cut down from the Himalayas lay within their left-hand field of vision. Note ⑤ This area is now generally planted with highland barley.review While traversing these towering mountains, at an altitude of seventeen thousand feet, the expedition's first misadventure occurred.Both Keras and Rayburn had been ill at Parry.Kailas was too sick to even ride a horse and had to be carried in a litter.But he was still cheerful and happy, and no one thought his condition was serious.But just after they arrived at Gangbazong, a person hurriedly ran to Howard.Belly and Wollaston reported that Kailas died of heart failure while being carried across the defile.For the expedition group, this is undoubtedly a terrible shock. The Scottish mountaineer possessed a national indomitable spirit; he pursued what he loved until he drove his poor body to death.He couldn't restrain himself, the mountain top was an irresistible temptation.Now, before he could even begin his expedition, he was exhausting himself.He was buried on the southern slope of Gangbazong where Mount Everest could be seen.We all like to know that his eyes finally fell on the summits he had conquered: the tall Paohanli, Kanchenjunga and Chomolari.He was the only one who had ever climbed these three mountains; they stood right in front of him on his last day's journey.So, here, among the highest mountains in the world, rests the great lover of the great mountains; whose passion still inspires every Himalayan climber. Note 6 pauhumi: 7128 meters above sea level, located on the border between China and Sikkim.Editor's note Rayburn was also now very ill and had to be sent back to Sikkim, and Wollaston had to accompany him.As a result, the climbing team is now split in two.Left alone to continue the climb were Malory and Bullock, two men who had never been to the Himalayas; the situation was worse without Kailas, who for many years had been engaged in a special study of oxygen at high altitudes. usage of.At that time, many people believed that climbing Everest was only possible with the use of oxygen. But now that Everest is finally in sight, climbers continue to push toward it.Looking about one hundred miles from Gangbazong, behind a vast plateau lies Mount Everest, the last of a series of giant peaks; these giant peaks include Kangchenjunga, which is 28,150 feet high feet), and Makalu⑦, 27,790 feet (8,463 meters).The majestic and majestic ranks go straight to the sky, forming the highest mountains in the world. They are the most beautiful mountains in the Himalayas; only through the other end of the mountains, that is, K2 gathered at an elevation of 28,278 feet (8,611 meters). It can only be approached by another group of star-like mountain tops around it. Note ⑦ Makalu: 8463 meters above sea level, the fifth highest peak in the world, opened in China in 1991.Editor's note From a mountaineering point of view, Malory is still far from Mount Everest, and there is hardly any progress.But its gently descending northeast ridge from the summit is now fully visible. This is the profile of Everest taken from near Darjeeling.The top 1,500 or 2,000 feet may seem like an easy climb, but the question is what does Everest look like below?Is there a way to get to that ridge?This question cannot be answered yet, because the Youdao mountain range intervenes to cover the lower half of Mount Everest. But wait until the expedition crosses that stretch of mountains to reach the basin of the Arun River, when there is an opportunity to find a satisfactory view.The glaciers on Everest emptied into the Arun River, which cut the Himalayas into a series of spectacular gorges in the most daring fashion.Malory and Bullock started on the morning of June 11, reached the Allen River valley, and climbed a rocky summit in the hope of gaining the desired view from there. God!The direction of Mount Everest was completely covered by steaming clouds.However, the occasional cloud gap revealed the shape of the mountain vaguely, and they waited patiently.Finally, the Everest mountain scene pulls back the veil briefly, first in one fragment, then another, then the summit, and finally the grand panorama, with glaciers, and ridge after ridge.That evening, at a high place far away from the camp, they saw Mount Everest, calm and clear, lying in the fading sunset. Everest was even fifty-seven miles away, and the base was still hidden by intervening mountains, but Malory could see that its northeast ridge was not too steep to climb; Apparently straight to the Arun.This may also provide a passage to climb up.That was the valley he later discovered, and it proved to be one of the most beautiful valleys in the whole Himalayas. But this was not yet the time when they were surveying Everest from the east side.They should continue westward toward Tingri, slightly west of Everest's north face, and approach their objective from there.Tingri, the town that Commodore Rollin and Ryder visited in 1904; it was favorable conditions for the whole exploration operation.So they keep trekking towards it. On the way they passed through Shegardzong; a place that had never been visited by any European.It's very Tibetan, so even with Everest so close it's worth taking a break.Howard.Belly described it as an interesting place, and all three echelon expedition members couldn't help but take many pictures of it; the pictures unanimously support his description.It sits neatly on a pointed rocky mound; the rocky mound is like a magnified Mount St. Michael (island) ⑧.The town was in fact at the foot of a rocky knoll, but perched literally on the precipice halfway up, was a large monastery; it consisted of innumerable buildings and was inhabited by more than four hundred monks.These buildings are connected by walls and towers, from which protrude a fortress; this fortress is also connected by walls with turrets, and a curious Gothic building on the top of the hill; with incense. Note ⑧ St. Michael's Mount: Granite Island, located in the west of Cornwall, England, stands in Mount's Bay in the English Channel, 365 meters offshore.When the tide is low, a natural causeway links the neighboring town of Marazion.Editor's note On June 17, when the expedition stopped there, Howard.Beli and some of his companions visited the huge Segar Pagoda.It is built on a steep rock slope by a large group of buildings stacked on top of each other like a trapezoid.They followed a road in the knoll through several arches, and then the party went up and down some picturesque but steep and narrow streets to a large courtyard with a The main body of the temple, there are several gold-plated statues of Buddha in the temple, decorated with turquoise and other precious stones.Behind these statues is a gigantic statue of Buddha, fifty feet high, whose face is regilded every year.Surrounding this colossal figure are eight curious human figures, about ten feet high, all dressed in quaint ruffles.They are said to be the patron saints of this shrine. The party walked up a steep and slippery flight of steps in the almost pitch-black darkness to a platform opposite the gigantic Buddha statue.Here they saw some silver teapots with beautifully embossed designs, and other interesting silver objects richly ornately carved.In this shrine, the light is very dim, and the grease burning in the oil lamp emits a choking stench. Howard.Belly and his companions were received and guided by the abbot of the monastery.Before leaving, they met the Living Buddha who had lived in the monastery for sixty-six years.He is believed to be the reincarnation of the previous living Buddha, so he is enshrined as an extremely sacred figure and receives special worship.He has only one tooth left; nevertheless, his smile is very pleasant.His room was lined with silver-plated chyutans inlaid with turquoise and other gems along the walls, and incense was burned everywhere. Note ⑨ Qiutan chorten: In Buddhist tradition, a tower or similarly shaped container for storing the relics of eminent monks or living Buddhas.Annotation Howard.Belly was lucky enough to take a picture of this most interesting character.Several monks persuaded him to come out in full dress, and sat on a high pedestal in his beautiful gold robes, before a finely carved Chinese table on which stood his bell and pestle. , behind which hangs a priceless silk Chinese hanging.Later Howard.Belly developed the photo and gave it to many people.No gift was more welcome; those who enshrined the Living Buddha as a saint would enshrine the picture in a shrine and offer incense in his presence. This and other similar experiences of travelers have shown that religion is a very real and very powerful factor in Tibet.The elder lamas in the monasteries are often truly respectable characters, and the Lama Rongbuk, whom the expedition team later met, is an outstanding example.All of them have dedicated their lives to religion, and art inspired by religion is also worthy of our attention.Intellectually they were not highly developed: they had no taste for Hindu religious philosophy; but their spiritual awareness was fine; they were compassionate, earnest, and revered.These objects of reverence also fulfill a great need among Tibetans; perhaps this is why Tibetans in general are so content.People need to have objects of worship, and among the Tibetans, there are such living figures that allow them to pour their hearts of reverence.
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