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Chapter 22 Chapter 19 Darjeeling to Rongbuk Glacier

Everest Epic 佛蘭西斯.楊赫斯本 6842Words 2023-02-05
Bruce and Norton headed for India ahead of the main force, and they arrived in Delhi on February 18, 1924.The Commander-in-Chief of India at the time, the late Lord Laurinson, gave them all kinds of assistance and encouragement.His late father was president of the Royal Geographical Society, so he had a keen interest in exploration.He managed to get Geoffrey.Captain Bruce successfully joined the expedition and sent four serving Gurkha non-commissioned officers into the regiment for General Bruce to dispatch. On March 1, the core of the expedition formed General Bruce, Norton, and Geoffrey in Darjeeling.Bruce and Shebier of the Forest Department of India.Shebier was new, and he had an insatiable frenzy for his work; comfort was a no-brainer for him, Bruce said.With his assistance he would act as transport officer and preparations were accelerated.The deaths of the seven provocateurs of the previous expedition did not hinder one bit.Many mountain people, including Sherpas, Bhutanese and other ethnic groups, came bustling, eager to be hired.Many people are here for the third time.A total of three hundred people came, and seventy were hired.Karma.Paul and his assistant Gyaljen were again employed as interpreters.The shy, docile Lepchas who lived in Sikkim were so good at collecting specimens that one of them was assigned to be sent by the naturalist Hinston.

Soon, other members of the expedition began to gather Somerwell from South India, Odell from Persia, Hinston from Baghdad, and finally Malory, Irwin, Bitan and Harold from England.The men were all assembled, and together they were led by General Bruce, who was cheerful and bright; once again he was at home surrounded by his mountain militia, facing the lofty Himalayan peaks.At this time, Noel made various arrangements in order to successfully film a detailed documentary for the expedition. On March 25th, they left Darjeeling, intending to reach the base camp below Mount Everest on May 1st, so that they could spend the whole of May and most of June for climbing, without seasonal rains. Under the influence of the situation, board the East Rongbuk Glacier and carry out the final attack.

Usually when passing through Sikkim, it is rare to have the opportunity to see the wonderful peak overlooking the whole of Sikkim.Kanchenjunga is often hidden by closer mountains or, when climbers climb a ridge where it can be seen, it is lost in mist.But in this case, Bruce still experienced a rare glimpse.From the Kapup Pass, he saw the whole of Kangchenjunga.The mountain did not stare at him with a cold and sharp aspect, but a deep violet haze soaked in the mysterious mist typical of the region, animating the stiff mountain.The lower slopes were engulfed in a tinge of blue, while the parts above the snow line seemed disconnected from any earthly base and seemed to float in midair, Bruce said.

It is a scene like this that makes mountaineers willing to endure the dirt, discomfort and hardship of the journey.One who has wrestled with them among the mountains appreciates their ethereal beauty more than he who merely looks at them from a long distance. The expedition arrived in Pali within the estimated time.Just on the edge of the Tibetan plateau, they are preparing to pass through the plateau.All tents were erected and inspected, supplies were sorted, and members of the expedition obediently were given physical examinations by the enthusiastic Hinton.Bruce was engaged in a big fight with the magistrate Zongben for his excessive fees.Like most Tibetan government officials, this Zongben is polite, but he is weak, greedy, and outright under the control of his subordinates.His men were, in Bruce's words, a ruthless rogue who took pleasure in it; they evidently took advantage of their position to make money by any means possible.

Note ① Zongben Dzongpen: the governor of a region (Zong), formerly known as Zongdui.review However, Parry can communicate with Lhasa by telegram, and the current communication situation is good, and the communication is not in a state of interruption.Bruce learned that Lhasa had sent a telegram to Zongben, ordering him to provide various assistance to the expedition group, so he drafted a draft telegram, complaining about the treatment he received. Formally sign a contract with the other party. So the expedition team left Parry excitedly.However, a very unfortunate thing happened soon.According to the physical condition test done in Parry, Bruce was already much better than when he left London, but when passing through the defile and entering the mainland of Tibet, the expedition team experienced a severe wind that penetrated the defile. Early the next morning, Bruce fell ill due to severe malaria and had to be sent back to Sikkim, so he had no choice but to hand over the baton of the expedition to Norton.

This is a major blow to Bruce. His biggest wish for many years is to climb Mount Everest. If he can't be an actual climber at his age, he can at least plan the tough work in the base camp and serve those Fighters cheer up.Now, just when he would be of great use, he was forced to leave them alone.This was indeed very embarrassing for him, and it was also a serious matter for the expedition team.The work of the organization could have been done without him, and had been done by others as well as he could have done.But no one knows how to inspire others like Bruce.Bruce was a benevolent volcano of good humor; no amount of misfortune could quench his irrepressible playfulness.Such a trait is valuable enough among the British, and it is ten times more valuable if it also includes the local aborigines.He can gurgle joy out of base camp and influence the entire expedition.Such abilities are extremely useful during such expeditions.

So Norton took over the baton from Bruce.In a way, that's an advantage, since Norton has actually climbed Everest before and will likely be a climber again this time.This is an advantage that Bruce does not have.Norton didn't know as much about the natives and the Himalayas as Bruce did, but he was still young enough to take on the important task of climbing. Moreover, Norton, like Bruce, possesses a quality that is invaluable to an expedition member (and especially an expedition leader), that is, the kind that is manifested in phrases such as country first, ship before individual; In terms of the current situation, it may be said that it is the first place on the peak.Norton may have argued with himself as a great polar explorer rather than as an Englishman; Gives me the right to demand self-sacrifice from others and gives me a better chance of reaching the top.There is some kind of fairness and rationality in such a claim.The leader of the expedition does have a heavy responsibility on his shoulders.He will take the blame for the failure of the expedition and the credit for its success.But Norton took the view that getting the expedition to the summit was the primary concern, and who made it and who got the glory was secondary.He was ready for the actual climb, but he would let his two most capable climbers, Malory and Somerwell, judge him impartially whether he was fit for the final sprint.

This spirit of impartiality and uprightness greatly encouraged the expedition team.If he had gone the other way and asked his members to sacrifice for his achievement, they would no doubt have done so, but then it would have been difficult for them to be as passionate about what they chose to do.As for Malory, who has participated in three consecutive expeditions, discovered the route to the summit, and has the deepest relationship with the expedition team, how does he view this matter?Fortunately, records survived.In a letter dated April 19, 1924, to a member of the Everest Committee, he wrote:

I must tell you what Norton cannot say in official documents, and that is: he is a great leader.He knows the whole bandobast, from A to Z, his eyes see everything, everyone accepts him; he makes the whole band happy; he is always in good spirits ; In the approachable, has its majesty.He's also a prodigious explorer who desperately wanted to do a sprint with the Oxygen team; he told me (and I'll keep it confidential because I'm sure he won't be broadcasting): When the time came for the sprint, he Surely I will consult with Somerwell and decide whether he is fit for the job.Shouldn't it be this spirit that should be brought to Mount Everest?

This testimony from Malory is particularly valuable because Malory may have resented Norton's leadership.Malory was the more prestigious mountaineer and had been involved in this series of expeditions since their inception.If he thinks that he should be the head of the regiment now, not Norton, that's human nature.We must also note this act of self-effacement by Norton, for when he did it the members of the expedition were quite sure they could make it to the summit; Malory himself stated in the same letter that he Believe that you will never have to do it again.He was sure that Everest would yield to their first assault.Therefore, the glory will fall to the members of the first group; naturally everyone wants to be in the first group.

Now, they began to seriously consider the plan of attacking the fortress.They were delayed for four days in Gangbazong, waiting for the delivery of tools, so they used the time to study the whole problem in detail.It may seem fairly simple, but there are two factors besides changing weather that complicate it.The first factor is that separate arrangements must be made for climbers who use oxygen and those who do not; the second factor is that on critical sections where provocateurs are hired, there must be someone who can speak Hindustan among the climbers. English or Nepali speakers. As early as Christmas, Norton drew up a plan and circulated it among the members for further discussion.Malory disagreed with some of these aspects.In Darjeeling and Parry, Norton, Malory, Somerwell and Geoffrey.There have been many discussions in the Bruce, but even now in Cambazon no agreement has been reached.It was not until April 17, when they arrived at Tinki Dzong, that a plan approved by all members was conceived.The original proposer, Malory, described it as follows: I, A and B with about fifteen pickers set out from the 4th Battalion on the North Col, set up the 5th Battalion at an altitude of about 25,500 feet, and then descended. Ⅱ. Climbers C and D who did not use oxygen took another fifteen pickers up to the Fifth Battalion, seven of whom carried bundles.After the seven pickers put down their bundles, they went down the mountain, while the other eight spent the night in the fifth battalion. III, C and D took the eight pickers and climbed to an altitude of 27,300 feet the next day to establish the seventh battalion. Ⅳ. E and F, who climbed the peak with oxygen, set off from the fourth battalion with ten pickers on the same day as the beginning of the third step. The pickers did not carry any bundles and went straight to the fifth battalion; from this point, E and F F took the supplies and oxygen placed here by the previous people, went up about 1,000 feet, and established the sixth battalion at an altitude of 26,500 feet. Ⅴ. The two groups then set off on the following morning and are expected to meet at the summit. In Malory's opinion, the main advantages of this plan are that the two groups can support each other, and that camps can be established without depleting alternate climbers, since A and B will not have to exert themselves excessively, and provocations will not be necessary. After the establishment of the sixth battalion, it collapsed.Even if the first attempt fails, there are still four or so climbers who can make the second attempt, and the camp is built for them. This is the simplest plan that could be conceived after long discussions.Even so, it is still not arbitrarily ranked which climber is A, or B, C, D, E, F.What must be considered is who can speak Nepali and who can use oxygen safely.But if a simpler project is not conceived, the disadvantage of oxygen climbing becomes apparent: it complicates the project. Poor Malory himself suffered a great deal in order to arrange the men in the various units so that the distribution of tasks ensured the success of the whole expedition.He believes that the group that climbs without oxygen will have better results.His long-cherished little project was to climb that mountain with an oxygen-free climbing group, setting up two camps above the North Col.Now, he was going to be disappointed, because after making the necessary arrangements for the team, he had to be included in the oxygen climbing team.It had been decided earlier that he and Somerwell would each lead one of the two mountaineering teams.He was chosen for the aerobic team because the aerobic team is considered to be less exhausting and is positioned as a support team for the aerobic team and will take care of the downhill.Somerwell was picked on the No Oxygen team because, based on his performance last year, he seemed to be recovering easily enough to face the challenge again.Disappointed that things had to be arranged this way, Malory consoled himself with the thought that conquering Mount Everest was the primary concern, and his own feelings secondary.Regardless, his role will be interesting, and probably give him his best chance of reaching the top of the mountain, he thought. One of Norton and Harred would accompany Somerwell to the summit when the time came, and Irving would accompany Malory, for he had shown extraordinary dexterity and diligence in repairing the oxygen equipment.And O'Dell and Geoffrey.Bruce would be responsible for establishing the Fifth Battalion.Betan probably won't work; he's suffering from dysentery so badly they've almost decided to send him back. Now that it was a foregone conclusion that Malory was included in the oxygen team, he devoted himself wholeheartedly to the oxygen program, as if he had been a supporter of oxygen mountaineering from the beginning.He strapped on the oxygen supply and climbed up a nearby hill, convincing himself that it was a manageable burden.He decided to carry as few steel cylinders as possible so that he could rush forward and go straight to the top of the mountain. His partner had also been identified as Irving, and he deliberately built a strong partnership with him that would allow the two to work effectively and willingly together.They talk together, they go out together, they try to get to know each other, so that when the tense moments come, the two of them can instinctively cooperate with each other. When the expedition team was drawing up plans while traveling through the Tibetan plateau, the whole team was in a state of high excitement.They are confident of success and are in time with the original schedule.The weather was fine, warmer than in 1922.The group they felt they were qualified climbers combined was, in Malory's words, a really solid group, and a much more balanced group than in 1922. The weight-carrying force composed of seventy strong men is also very good.They are all Mongolians, either Bhutanese or Sherpas. Some are Sherpas of Tibetan race living in Darjeeling or Sikkim, and some are Sherpas of Tibetan race living in the higher valleys of Nepal. people.Experience had shown that a certain body type was best suited for climbing; the seventy had been carefully selected for that archetype.That is to say, they are all light in stature and muscular, not heavy and fleshy.They were all from good families, with bright minds and the ability to tolerate the stress of high altitude situations.Individually and collectively, Norton said, they were like children's versions of British soldiers; they shared many of the virtues of the British Army.They have the same high spirits in the face of difficult and dangerous work, and the same quick response to banter and jokes.And, as in the British Army, rough fellows who can drink and be led astray by the baubles of the world are a constant nuisance, but when things go against the grain, the more docile ones often give up trying Afterwards, they were still able to fight desperately. On the way across the Tibetan plateau, none of them had ever carried heavy loads.They were to be left to go up the mountain before being assigned their duties; they had been doing light exercise in order to maintain optimal physical condition and were provided with good food, clothing and tents.But it doesn't mean that carrying heavy things is such a serious matter for them. After all, they are used to carrying water and grain for their household since they were young. The expedition team walked the now well-known passage across the Tibetan plateau.They were immersed in the plan, and they were overjoyed by the prospect. The only regret was that their cheerful and lively leader could not accompany them.Most of those mornings were sunny and calm, so they ate breakfast in the open air at around seven o'clock. At the same time, the big tent was dismantled and packed, and two fast donkeys carried them to the next stop.At seven-thirty or eight o'clock, the whole expedition marched in formation; the climbers rode halfway, because the experience of 1922 showed that it was necessary for climbers to reserve energy for the work ahead.At about eleven thirty, they chose a shelter from the wind, and sat down in a row of three or two. At that time, the wind inevitably picked up; they sat down and ate some biscuits, cheese, chocolate and raisins. Light lunch. By two o'clock they were usually in their new camp, although occasionally they arrived as late as seven o'clock.The big tent at the new camp will be put up first, and a more solid lunch and tea will be prepared first.Soon, tents and luggage will arrive one after another.Dinner will be served at about half past seven.By eight-thirty they would be in bed; during the night the thermometer usually dropped to ten degrees Fahrenheit. They reached Shegar Dzong on April 23.Zong Ben rode out to meet the expedition group, greeted them very politely, and promised to provide assistance within his ability.As expected, he fulfilled his promise, and within two days he prepared a vigorous transport team.He was a straightforward and efficient gentleman, and Norton found him a pleasure to deal with, and found him to be completely in charge of his own office.Due to carelessness, an error occurred in the calculation of the transportation cost, and that error was beneficial to the British side.But when Norton pointed out the mistake, Zongben refused to go back and recalculate.So the British sent many generous and expensive gifts to this generous official; but Norton later learned that all he really wanted was a cheap camping chair and a pair of snow goggles.The goggles could be given right away, but there were no extra camp chairs to give away, so Norton later sent a pair from Darjeeling. On April 26 the expedition passed Pang La, at a height of nearly eighteen thousand feet; from a small hill above it, Norton had a magnificent view of the great Himalayas, and Everest itself It was directly opposite him, only thirty-five miles away.On his left are Makalu and Kanchenjunga, and on his right Gejunkham, Cho Oyu and Shishapangma.So there stood before him the highest mountain in the world, and several others nearly as high; he must have seen that range stretching for two hundred miles.As far as he observed, nothing was missing from the majestic mountain landscape he saw; each giant peak had space between its neighbors, and none was dwarfed by the other; each led a series of minor peaks. , showing a jagged line from one point of the horizon to another.On these mountains, except for the too steep rock walls, ice and snow are covered above 20,000 feet, but there is one exception: due to the constant northwest wind blowing, the slopes of the rocks on the mountains are strange, and the entire north wall of Everest's cone is up and down. There was hardly any snow at six thousand feet. Note ② Xishapangma Peak Gosainthan: It used to be called the Monk Zanfeng.review Climbers imagine climbing Everest by every conceivable route.They settled on one and then figured out how to climb Makalu, but they were beaten there.They couldn't climb it, even in their imaginations.Many more years would have to pass before Makalu was considered climbable among the Himalayan peaks. Note ③ Mount Makalu is 8463 meters above sea level, the fifth highest peak in the world. In 1955, the French mountaineering team led by J. Franco succeeded in the first ascent.Editor's note On the twenty-eighth of April they passed through that ugly, desolate country where the hills were like brown mounds and the valley floors were bordered by lines of glaciers like embankments; beyond these embankments was Everest. territory; they camped directly opposite the Rongbuk Monastery.The next day they walked another four miles uphill to the old base camp. They were on schedule and actually two days ahead of schedule.Because everything had been carefully planned beforehand, they could get to work without delay.The food boxes, bedding rolls, and various stocks carried by nearly three hundred cattle were unloaded in one go, and then quickly sorted and arranged in orderly rows or piles.There is a steady stream of unloading of boxes and bales, and each box is properly labeled to indicate the batch number.The able-bodied yamen of Xieger Zongzong specially selected local Tibetan strong men for this purpose, and they will carry these things on their shoulders from the next day and send them to the first camp area above the East Rongbuk Glacier.
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